Trump Nominates Gen James Mattis As Defence Secretary

Trump Nominates Gen James Mattis As Defence Secretary

Just recently, President-elect Donald Trump launched a tour dubbed “thank you” to thank the Americans for voting him as the president. On the first day of the tour, Trump discussed lots of issues in his speech. One of the key issues that took attention of most people is nomination of General “Mad Dog’ Mattis for the defense secretary position.

Mattis is regarded as the closest substitution of General George Patton who served as the general during the World War II. Trump had made other nominations of his Pentagon team before he announced about the General Mattis.

About Mattis

Trump Nominates Gen James Mattis As Defence SecretaryJames Mattis is a 66-year-old retired mariner. He acquired the name “Mad Dog’ after successfully leading troops to war in the Persian Gulf in the year 1991. Mattis has also lead troops to Afghanistan and Iraq in early 2000.

He holds a record of winning battles and this one of the key things that make him suitable for the Secretary of Defense position. In the year 2004, he led the American and British troops to Fallujah war in Iraq, and they won. Trump believes that Mattis is the best candidate for the position. They had met earlier in a hotel, but no one revealed what they discussed until the rally in Ohio.

Mattis History

Mattis has served in the American Military for the last 44 years. In the year 2010, he was promoted from being a general to become the US Central Command. While serving the position, he was responsible for US forces in the Middle-East. Mattis was also a big critic of the Iran Nuclear deal for the period he served as US Central Command during the Obama era i.e. from 2010 to 2013. Mattis gave away his job as the US Central Command after he was fired by Obama.

Is General Mattis Eligible for the Role?

Trump Nominates Gen James Mattis As Defence SecretaryAfter Trump nominated General Mattis to be the Secretary of Defense, that doesn’t mean that he must take the position. For one to take the position, he/he must meet all the legal requirements. It can be a major setback for General Mattis.

One of the US legal obligations of a retired officer to serve as the defense secretary, he/she must be out of uniform for a minimum period of seven years. Mattis doesn’t meet this legal requirement. For him to take the position, Republican-controlled Congress needs to favor the legislation. It’s getting quite hard for Mattis to take the job since a Democratic Senator from New York, Kristen Gillibrand said she couldn’t vote an exception to the rule.

Mattis career in the military has been successful, and he was able to keep good relationships with others. He has managed to get support from the military, and this has increased his chances of becoming the next Secretary of Defense.


Out of all people, Trump has nominated to be a part of his Pentagon team; most people have accepted General Mattis. He suits the positions, judging from career history and involvement in country’s security. His nomination announcement was a surprise although there were rumors that he would be nominated for the position. Although he doesn’t meet all the legal requirements, still he can become the Secretary of Defense if he gets approval from the Congress. Mattis is expected to take over the office after the Inauguration of Donald Trump.

Titanic Replica Built In China

China Building a Full Size Replica of Titanic

It was April 1912 when Titanic hit an iceberg and started sinking. It was its fourth day in the ocean after leaving Southampton for New York. The accidents remain to be one of the most dangerous in the maritime industry. It left over 1500 people dead.

Titanic was the prime ship of its time. Today a lot of people have tried to come up with a replica of the ship, but just a few of them have managed to do so. An Australian billionaire has a project undergoing of a replica of Titanic. James Cameron did for his movie titled “Titanic.” And today, China is building such a model.

Titanic Replica Built In China 1

The Replica

The Titanic built by the Chinese government is the actual size of the real Titanic. In fact, the Titanic measured 882ft long and 92ft wide. These are actual measures of the real Titanic. The design of the ship will remain the same, according to the designer of the replica.

However, the ship looks on the inside will differ because they don’t have adequate information on the design of the Titanic. It’s been hundred years, and that may be quite hard to have all the details regarding the ship.

Features of the replica Titanic

Although the project aims to produce a replica of the Titanic, the features that the ship will have will differ from that of the real Titanic. Due to technological advances, this must happen. Some of the most astounding features of the ship include: the replica will be capable of simulating the iceberg collision that happened to the Titanic, the ship will also have swimming pools, a modern theater, a ballroom among other features.

Titanic Replica Built In China 1


Seven Star Investment Group builds the replica. It is expected to be complete within a year, and in 2017, the replica will be launched to take its first voyage. A Hollywood designer, Curtis Schnell, was appointed to head the projected. He says that together with his team, they have tried to make replica as exact as Titanic using the limited resources they have available. The projected is estimated to cost over a billion dollar according to Seven Star Investment group.


Titanic Replica Built In China 1As soon as the news got to the public that China was building a Titanic, lot of negative critiques have arisen. Some people claims that China is building the ship as a way to seeking attention and have more and more people visit their country. The CEO of the company behind the project defended the project saying the ship represent something of general value much the same way as the US recreated the Kung Fu Panda.

People have also criticized the plan saying that it is such a disrespectful act for one to recreate a feature that took away lives of many innocent people. In response to the critics, the CEO of the company behind the project defended his company saying they are not disrespectful.


The sinking Titanic was a huge disastrous accident to occur back in the time. Although Tsunami and other natural calamities haven take away lives of many, none of the physical features that led to such a massive killing as it did. The event was recorded in the book of history, and many people are trying to recreate the ship so as to make the story more realistic. Various projects were started to create a Titanic replica, but only a few succeeded. China is working to be among the Titanic replica projects to be successful, and this will be proven in the year 2017.

Bad Month For Arctic Sea Ice

How Was November A Bad Month For Arctic Sea Ice?

Over the last ten years, the arctic sea ice has seen a decline. This can be largely attributed to the increased effects of global warming. Normally, during winter, the arctic ice increases in width and thickness. During the summer, the ice melts thereby reducing in size.

However, according to the satellite records, this year the warmest summer was experienced. This resulted in a mass decline in the Arctic ice. According to the visual records by NASA Goddard’s Scientific Studio, this year, the Arctic experienced the melting of some of its oldest and thickest ice.

The Build up to November

Bad Month For Arctic Sea IceThe month of September saw a quick increase in the mass of ice. This continued up to mid-October. However, the freeze-up in early October was slow and only saw the ice mass of approximately 378,000 square kilometers. The slow freeze-up is attributed to the above average sea surface temperatures recorded this period.

Another factor that played a significant role in the decline of the ice is the atmospheric temperatures above the Arctic Ocean. This years’ temperature above the Arctic was 14 degrees Celsius more than the average recovered from 1981-2010. The difference in the air, temperatures led to unusual atmospheric circulation. These two environmental factors led to the extension of the warm temperature from October into November.

This November, summer was over and above the normal temperatures to 30 degrees Fahrenheit. This resulted into the normal melting of ice. However, the mass of ice that melted was also more than the average that is usually recorded in other years. This was experienced around mid-November. After the period was over, cooler air that had been displaced by the warm temperatures started returning to the Arctic.

Bad Month For Arctic Sea IceIt was expected that the ice would increase quickly due to the low temperatures. However, according to Satellite images on November 19, the Arctic ice mass spent a number of days shrinking before starting to increase in width and thickness.

It is reported that from the beginning of the month of November, the extent of the Arctic sea was 7.07 million square miles which were the lowest data ever recorded for that time of the year. By the end of the month, about 3.33 million square miles of the ice mass have melted. This is about 400,000 square miles more than any ice wasting ever recorded in history for that period of the year.

This greater decline in the ice mass that melted means that winter might not be able to freeze up as much ice so as to cover up the areas that wasted away. Julienne Stroeve, a researcher at the National Snow and Ice Data Center predicted that with this decline in the wasting of the ice, there might not be any ice in the Arctic region by mid-century.


Global warming has a major impact on the climate of the world. The wasting of the Arctic ice is just one of the recorded major changes in the world climate. Therefore, global leaders should be more proactive in implementing policies to safeguard posterity from the adverse effects of global warming.

Only Emotional Intelligence Can Save Children From Online Gambling

Emotional Intelligence Can Save Children From Online Gambling

The challenges that teenagers go through have evolved with the evolving world. Just a few years back, the common challenges were drug abuse, peer pressure, gang related behavior, and so on. These challenges are still present, but they have also changed in nature and tactic due to the digital era. Today, instead of drug addiction, the teens are being addicted to social media, online gaming, and online gambling.

Virtual Addictions

Only Emotional Intelligence Can Save Children From Online GamblingPresently, teens spend more time with their smartphones, iPhone, tablets, and computer than in socializing and doing the traditional teen activities. Parents have been trying to keep their teenage boys out of the streets or away from certain gangs. Therefore, when they sit in their rooms all they with their computer, some parents think that their children are safe the perceived evils of the world.

However, nothing could be further from the truth. The new evils are on the face of the computer and on the internet. Most of the children are spending most of their time on social media and online either gaming or gambling. According to some social behavior analysts, todays’ teenage boys are more likely to become addicted to online gambling than to drugs.

Reasons for Virtual Addictions

There are several reasons why most teenagers are getting deeper into these virtual vices. The major reason is that these children still experience some of the traditional forms of teenage challenges such as bullying. However, unlike in the past, online gambling and online gaming provide a perfect defense mechanism. They help the teenager to escape their perceived harsh reality to their created virtual reality.

Additionally, the children have been modeled to using online escapism as a self-medicating method. Most parents also use the internet mostly when stressed at work or in their relationship. The children learn this subconsciously. Therefore, the teens engaging in the vice are expressing what they have learned.

Emotional Intelligence Remedy

Only Emotional Intelligence Can Save Children From Online GamblingEmotional intelligence refers to the ability to identify emotions in oneself and in others. After identifying the emotions one can be able to deal better with self and others. Therefore, for the parents and the teacher to succeed in helping their teens to get out of online gambling; they must help them to be emotionally intelligent.

This should involve getting down to the roots of the causes of online addiction. For example, if the cause is stress at school: the children should be empowered in various ways to express themselves. They could also be taught in ways to deal with stress.

The best way to teach emotional intelligence to the kids is to practice it as adults. As parents, when stressed at work, it would be more empowering for the children if the parents expressed their frustrations verbally. They could also request their teens to engage in a workout activity with them as they talk about the challenges in their lives. This would help the teens to subconsciously learn the skills to deal with the challenges in their lives constructively. It would also provide a chance for the teens to learn soft life skills.


The internet, online games, online gambling platforms and other online platforms are here to stay. Therefore, denying children access to the favorite computer gadgets is a short term solution to a deeper challenge. Teaching the children emotional intelligence will take time. However, it will be the only sure way to develop well-rounded teens ready for the challenges of real life.

Six Ways a Trump Presidency Expected to Change the World

Six Ways a Trump Presidency Expected to Change the World

Donald Trump is now the president elect after the highly contested presidential elections. The campaign time is over now. America and the world are waiting to see what unfolds in his presidency. trying to see what changes to expect with a Trump Presidency. This is based on the issues he expressed during the presidential debates and during the campaign period.

1. Climate Change

Six Ways a Trump Presidency Expected to Change the WorldMr. Trump explicitly expressed his opposition to the Obama’s Clean Power Plan. He also said that he believed that Climate Change is a hoax and threatened to pull out of the Paris Climate Deal which was the first international treaty to address the issue of climate change. In addition to that, he had threatened to lift the regulations on oil and coal.This, he said, is hurting the economy of the US.

During the recent interviews ,the president elect has expressed a softer approach to issue on climate change. During an interview with a Times columnist, Mr Trump alluded that he is maintaining “an open mind” on the issue about the Paris Climate Change Agreement. Therefore, moving forward, it is expected to be seen what the president elect will actually do with the climate change issue.

2. Trade

Six Ways a Trump Presidency Expected to Change the WorldMr Trump enlisted a seven point plan to rebuild the Economy of United States. In the plan, he pointed out that he would renegotiate with NAFTA partners with the intent to impose import taxes on Mexico and China. His goal, he said, would be to increase the jobs in America by ensuring that products are manufactured in America.

This echoes a sanction by George W Bush in 2002. He increased the tariffs on imported steel with similar intentions. Instead, the U.S. steel producers took advantage raising their prices due to the increased demand. This resulted in higher steel prices and losses of thousand of jobs. Therefore, Mr. Trumps intentions might lead to similar events if implemented.

3. Trade Barriers

According to a China professor named Zhou Nianli, If Mr. Trump implemented the trade tariffs, China might create trade barriers for America. This could lead to a challenge in American companies investing in China. It could also make it difficult for some U.S companies which get their raw materials exclusively from China. This might result in job loss to many Americans. Even worse, it could lead to diplomatic issues between the two powerful nations.

4. North Korea Nuclear Program

Six Ways a Trump Presidency Expected to Change the WorldChina has been instrumental in assisting the U.S in its quest to contain North Korea in its nuclear projects. It is also very instrumental in helping U.S implement certain policies in the Middle East. These activities have been possible due to the mutual relationship between the two nations in the past. With a Trump Presidency, the relationship risks becoming poor if the trade tariffs are implemented.


During his campaign, Mr Trump expressed his dissatisfaction with NATO. He threatened to pull out of the agreement and leave the NATO allies to defend for themselves. He proposed that the allies must increase their commitment to the agreement . This is by at least paying up to 2% for the defense.

6. Better Relations With Russia

Six Ways a Trump Presidency Expected to Change the WorldDuring the Obama presidency, the US experienced a lukewarm relationship with the Russian government. However, this is expected to change with the seemingly mutual admiration between the two leaders. The president elect expressed his appreciation for the Russian president, which was met with a similar response from the president.


Since being declared the president elect, Mr Trump has adopted a softer tone. This might see a change in his aggressiveness to implement some of the points he had proposed earlier. However, all is about to be seen after his inauguration in January.

Attractions of the World Where You Need a Telescope

10 Attractions of the World Where You Need a Telescope

There are many natural attractions and wonders in the world. However, there are some spectacular sceneries which can not be fully enjoyed without the help of a telescope. These might be natural sceneries or occurrences or man-made. To enjoy the beauty of the details in these sites one needs a telescope for enhanced vision. Such sceneries include:

1. Grizzly Peak

Attractions of the World Where You Need a TelescopeThis beautiful peak is located in the Berkeley Hills, California. It stands at an elevation of 1,758 ft above sea level. The grizzly peak has been ranked among the top scenic views in Oakland. The high elevation makes it possible to view the beautiful sunset and the best sceneries on the bay. A telescope helps one to view the sites better with the ability to see the minute details.

2. Claremont Canyon Regional Preserve

Attractions of the World Where You Need a TelescopeThis site is perfect for outdoors activities such as hiking, rock climbing, and site seeing. The view from the top is just magnificent. One can use a telescope to see places like the Alcatraz, golden gate bridge and the bay. One can also see the Berkeley’s Sather tower, the Albany hills, and the Marin hills. It is located in the of Oakland, California.

3. Ngorongoro Crater Wildlife Lodge

Attractions of the World Where You Need a TelescopeThis wildlife attraction site is located in Tanzania. This area was originally connected with the famous Serengeti National Park However, it was later set apart to be managed by the Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority. The crater sinks to a depth of 610 meters and has a width of approximately 260 Kilometers squared. For one to enjoy the site of the wild animals and the stretch down the crater one can use a telescope.

4. Sibley Volcanic Regional Preserve

Attractions of the World Where You Need a TelescopeThis Regional Preserve is located in the Berkeley Hills, Alamenda County,California. It stands at an elevation of 1,761 feet above sea level and is an extinct volcano. The park has cool walking trails with some of the most amazing scenic views. For better siting of the far off sceneries, visitors use the telescopes.

5. Menengai Crater

Attractions of the World Where You Need a TelescopeThis magnificent natural feature is found in Kenya. It is located in the famous Rift Valley, which also has a lot of other great attractions. The crater highest point is at 7,474feet. This is arguably one of the biggest calderas in the whole world. It is said that, other than being massive, it is one of the best-preserved calderas in the world. It is possible to enjoy the site without a telescope. However, with one, one can be able to enjoy all the details of the mysterious crater.

6. Namib Desert

Attractions of the World Where You Need a TelescopeTo most of the celestial geeks, this desert in Namibia. Due to its conducive environment and it’s clear sky views, tourist has he most amazing sky views using their telescopes.

7. Northern Lights in Iceland

Attractions of the World Where You Need a TelescopeThe beautify aurora activities are visible in the sparsely populated Iceland from the month of September to mid-April. They are visible at night, especially when the skies are clear. During summer, it is difficult to see them due to the bright light. A few minutes drive room the city of Reykjavik, one can clearly see them.

8. The Peak

Attractions of the World Where You Need a TelescopeThe peak is one of the major attraction sites in Hong Kong. It is built in a postmodern architectural style in such a way that it has a large viewing base. From the base, one can use their telescope to see the beautiful city and all its wonderful skyscrapers.

9. Burj Kalifa

Attractions of the World Where You Need a TelescopeThis is one of the tallest buildings in the world. Located in Dubai with its tip at 828m. The building provides and observatory at level 148 (584.5m). This building also provides the tourists with the unique opportunity to have a view of the world below with a telescope from the top floors.

10. Shaw Lake Dark Site

This site is located in London. It has been identified as one of the most conducive places where tourist can view the skies with their own telescopes. This site attracts a lot of tourists who want to get away from the glaring city lights for a perfect view.


A telescope is very important in making you breath in the wonders and natural attraction sites in the world. Such an experience is not only enjoyable but also memorable.

What Does Stephen Hawking Say about Planet

What Does Stephen Hawking Say about Planet?

Stephen Hawking is one of the most successful theological physicists in the world today. He is also an author and a director of a Research Center for Theoretical Cosmology at Cambridge University. He rose to fame after he published a book “Brief History of Time’ in 1988.

Throughout his career, Hawking has been able to explain a lot of things about the universe; this has made him more authoritative on answering questions about the universe. Just recently, Hawking made headlines after he said that the human race has only a 1000 year left on earth. This article contains some of the issues that may lead to the extinction of human race according to Hawking.

Nuclear Energy and Weapons

What Does Stephen Hawking Say about PlanetAccording to Hawking, one of the things that may lead to the demise of the human race is nuclear weapons. A human can never take full control over them; but when they backfire, it can be a disaster to us. Technological advancements have contributed to the bred of more complex nuclear weapons; it has also helped human to “effectively’ utilize the nuclear power. Today, we have more and more nuclear power plants set up. According to Hawking, humans concentrate on the advantages of the technological advancements and failing to look on the negative side.

The Global Warming

Stephen Hawking believes that the gradual changes in the world’s temperature can also culminate into the end of the human race. It is not yet proven that the humans are the primary causes of the global warming, but there are a couple of facts that show how the world temperature have changed since the beginning of industrialization.

Hawking believes that with time, the earth will be just like planet Venus where average temperatures are 250 degrees Celsius, and it rains sulphuric acid. This is yet to happen with time. According to NASA temperature data, the earth is getting warmer every day. If earth turns out to be like Venus, it will be hard for the human race to survive the conditions.

Artificial Intelligence

What Does Stephen Hawking Say about PlanetAnother key factor that may contribute to the extinction of human race is Artificial intelligence. Hawking believes that that people may develop robot creatures that may outdo them. He gave an example of today; robots have taken away jobs of people in some industry and especially in the digital industry where the big farms just have a little number of employees compared to the past, the revenue and they are making and the customers they are reaching globally. Robots which are capable of thinking as man is under development and their performance are unpredictable.

Man-made viruses

In the world today, research on genes and how to heal diseases have become so common. People are even trying to make their viruses using genes. Most of all this is done for good reasons. The worst part about it is that people don’t fully understand how genes work. These projects may end up giving rise to untreated disease which may be a threat to the world’s population. Hawking has warned people about the projects, and if they don’t take the warning seriously, it will lead to the extinction of humanity in the universe.


According to Stephen Hawking, humans are also an endangered species. They are the cause of all these problems. He estimates that if human continues to do whatever they are doing now, they won’t exist on planet earth in thousands of years to come. The earth will be inhabitable; it will be just like Venus. Global warming, artificial intelligence, Human-made viruses and nuclear energy being the main causes.

What Are the Best Sources of Hot Water In Home

What Are the Best Sources of Hot Water In Home?

With advanced technology, sources of hot water have improved. If you haven’t replaced your water heater system over the years, it’s time to make that change and experience the new efficiency brought about by this new technology. You don’t have to heat your drinking water from your kitchen cooker as this amount to time inconveniences. The following models could help you in your daily water heating schedules considering the amount of water you are heating and how you are heating your water.

Tankless water heater

What Are the Best Sources of Hot Water In HomeTankless model is the commonly used source of hot water. This system is efficient in energy consumption and works very fast. It can be used to heat small amounts of water. Not only does it heat water, but also stores your water. Whenever you need hot water, it’s readily available. This system allows you to choose your preferable source of energy when heating. They are of two types: the tankless gas water heater and the tankless electric water heater. The system is designed in a compact way to save space. It has a longer life expectancy. If you wish to learn more about the best tankless water heaters and read tankless water heater reviews head over to to read the gudes and articles.

Storage tank water heater

What Are the Best Sources of Hot Water In HomeThis is the most commonly used source of hot water. The tank heats and stores water that can be used when needed. It has a larger capacity hence holds more water. The system is designed in a unique way to allow smooth flow of water from its pipe. The presence of both the temperature and pressure valves allows it to open and release the excess pressure while cooling down the system. Gas operated systems are efficient, but expensive. You can also use the electric storage tank water heater.

Solar water heater

What Are the Best Sources of Hot Water In HomeIt’s among the latest technology. In most cases, this system is roof mounted and depends on sunrays to operate. The system is very economical as it uses natural energy. With a great wire connection and anti-freeze system, the water being heated serves numerous purposes. Since it has a good backup energy system, this source can operate when the weather is cloudy or sunless.

Condensing water heater

This one works well when you want to heat large amounts of water with gas. This tank is designed to save energy as the exhaust pipes redirect the steam back into the tank where the hot steam meets cold water and the escaping energy is absorbed. The unit is very efficient and economical and can be used for tasks that need large amounts of hot water.

Heat pump water heater

What Are the Best Sources of Hot Water In HomeAlso known as the hybrid water heater. Unlike other heaters, the water heater is on top. They absorb heat from the air and transfer it to the water in the tank. The energy consumption is excellent as compared to other sources. It works well in areas that experience high temperatures. The amount of water heated is large; hence you need more space for cooling. This unit is slightly expensive compared to the other units, but more efficient in terms of its operational costs.


Sources of water heating are designed to save your time. Before you buy any system, consider its size, efficiency, economy and the purpose energy you are planning to use.

How to Plan Golden Circle Late Afternoon Tour

How to Plan Golden Circle Late Afternoon Tour?

Golden Circle in Reykjavik, Iceland has numerous tourist attraction sites. The area attracts many visitors from across the world especially in the summer. Preferably, visitors consider visiting the Golden Circle during the afternoons in order to have a clear view of the sites in the area without fog and mist.
Some of the most popular attraction sites in Golden Circle, Reykjavik include: Faxi and Gullfoss waterfall, Geysir geothermal area and Þingvellir National Park, Thingvellir National Park, and the Geysir.

Planning Golden Circle Late Afternoon Tour

In order to achieve the best out of your late afternoon tour to the Golden Circle, you need to plan adequately for it. This plan should encompass every person and everything to be used in the trip. The following are some useful tips for the Golden Circle late afternoon tour plan. IcelandBuddy has some valuable advice on how to plan your golden circle trip and say that you should do some background on the best Golden Circle Tours and have a reservation set up before you arrive.

1) Plan Your Tour during the Summer

How to Plan Golden Circle Late Afternoon TourIceland is among the polar countries. Thus, the country has extreme weathers with extremely low temperatures during the winter. Therefore, if you are planning to visit Golden Circle in Reykjavik, Iceland, you should consider summer seasons.

During the summer, there are fewer cases of fog and mist in the Golden Circle especially in the late afternoons. Therefore, this allows you to enjoy your tour without limitation of the viewing area.

2) Book the Afternoon Bus Tours

Mostly, the bus meant for afternoon trips are usually booked in advance. Therefore, you might find it hard to get a space not unless you book prior to going to Reykjavik. Afternoon bus tours trips to areas such as Geysir geothermal area and Gullfoss and the famous Thingvellir National Park.

Here, you have a chance to view the geothermal space with sprouting warm springs. The springs’ water sprouts from the ground rising up to a high height in the atmosphere. At the Thingvellir National Park, you have a chance to see over 170 plant species and different types of fish and animals.

3) Make Cost Plans

How to Plan Golden Circle Late Afternoon TourDifferent areas visited in the Golden Circle area charge differently. At the same time, the charges are different for different people visiting the area. If you are planning to visit the place with your family, you should make different cost plans to include every member. The following is a summary of prices:

a) Adults (18 and above years): € 77,87

b) Youth (12-17 years): € 38,93

c) Children (1-11 years): Free

d) Infants: Not Applicable

These charges apply to trips taken to Þingvellir National Park, Gullfoss waterfall, and Geysir hot spring areas.

4) Plan for the Meals

How to Plan Golden Circle Late Afternoon TourNormally, the tips offered by the buses or hotels’ pick-ups do not include lunch and refreshments. Whether you are alone or with your family, you need to plan for the meals that you will take during the tour.

As you stand besides the famous waterfalls of Gullfoss, you will enjoy watching the natural sites while taking refreshments and some snacks. This will keep you and your family going before your trip is over. At the end of the day/trip, you may proceed to take other meals at the Reykjavik hotels or restaurants.


Golden Circle region is one of the most visited areas in Reykjavik, Iceland. The region has a rich source of tourist experience based on the natural sites available. Preferably, you may consider taking your Golden Circle tour in the summers and in the late afternoons for a better and a more clear view in the polar region.

Hard Water In US

What Are the Levels of Hard Water In United States?

Hard water contains high levels of calcium and magnesium elements. Therefore, such water requires high amount of detergents in order to make it suitable for domestic usage. Also, the water requires to be passed through different processes of water softening at domestic, municipal, county, or state grounds in order to make it suitable for usage by the residents of an area.

Water Hardness In US

In the US, different states have different types of water regarding the level of hardness. Some states have very hard water that requires to be passed through intensive water softening process. Over 80% people in the US access hard water which needs to be softened in different ways.

This implies that over 40 states in US require water softening services regularly. On the other hand, other states have soft water or less hard water which can be simply used at home or locally softened through a cheap and affordable process.

Levels of Hard Water In US?

Levels of Hard Water In USWater hardness is ranked according to the level of calcium and magnesium elements content in it. Thus, it is categorized into levels such as: slightly hard water, moderately hard water, hard water, and very hard water. The following is guide on the level of water hardness in different states of America.

1) Slightly Hard Water

This is the water that contains 1 to 3.5 grains per gallon. Slightly hard water should not exceed 3 to 3.5 grains per gallon. Such water does not require intensive water softening measures. It can be easily softened at home using chemical or water softener devices. Some of the states with slightly hard water include: Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, Washington, Oregon, Arkansas, Georgia, Tennessee, and parts of Oklahoma.

2) Moderately Hard Water

It contains 3.5 to 7 grains per gallon. This water can be softened using home water softener devices. However, it requires to be softened by county government in order to prevent risks in case of domestic softeners failures. States with moderately hard water include: New Orleans, parts of Washington, Oregon, and California, Missouri, parts of Oklahoma, Wyoming, Tennessee, Kentucky, parts of New York and Philadelphia.

3) Hard Water

Levels of Hard Water In USThis type of water contains 7 to 10 grains per gallon. Hard water requires intensive water softening both at public and domestic levels. It is normally passed through water softening systems and devices in order to eliminate hardness ions. States with hard water include: parts of Washington, California, Oregon, Colorado, Texas, Missouri, Michigan, and Virginia.

4) Very Hard Water

This water contains 10 and above grains per gallon. Such water requires intensive water softening techniques such as substitution of ions and mechanical elimination of magnesium and calcium ions from the water. This water is normally softened at the country level before it is re-softened again at the domestic level.

Many states including: Minnesota, North Dakota, Montana, Idaho, Nevada, Colorado, Iowa, Wisconsin, Illinois, and Missouri, California, Utah, New Mexico, and Nebraska have this type of water in different parts or in the entire region of the states.


Different states in US have different types of water regarding its hardness level. Others have mixed types of water. Therefore, if you are not sure of the hardness level of the water in your area, it is important that you seek for water hardness testing from the state health department near you.

What Is a Gravity Flush Toilet

What Is a Gravity Flush Toilet?

There are various types of toilets available on the market today. Toilets can be classified according to water consumption, bowl types, design and different other features. However, in terms of flushing systems, they can be classified according to pressure assisted and gravity flush types.

Just like their name, gravity flush toilets mainly work through the force of gravity impacting on the water. This means that they don’t rely on any form of pressure assistance. A gravity flush toilet works through 3 main systems. These are the bowl siphon, the flush mechanism, and the refill mechanism.

The Bowl Siphon

What Is a Gravity Flush ToiletIf you happen to be disconnected from your water tank and the only thing remaining in your bathroom was a bowl, you would still be able to use your toilet. As much as it lacks moving parts, it solves all the problems that a toilet needs to solve. This is made possible by the bowl siphon.

For example, if you fill a bucket with water, and pour it into the bowl, you will notice that the bowl flushes. This implies that almost all the water in the bowl is sucked out. The bowl then produces that distinct flush sound, as all the water disappears down the pipe.

What happens is that, the water you poured into the bowl, was fast enough to fill the siphon tube. As the tube was filled, the rest of the process was automatic. This implies that even if someone disconnected your bathroom water supply, you would still flush your toilet. All you need is a bucket filled with water.

The Flush Mechanism

What Is a Gravity Flush ToiletThe tank on the toilet system acts like a bucket of water that was previously discussed. You have to supply the bowl with enough water and fast enough, to trigger the flush mechanism or the siphon. If you attempt to do that using normal house water, for example piped water coming from a tap, the flush process would not occur.

The tank is more of a capacitor. It contains several water gallons, which takes around 30 to 60 seconds to fill up completely. Whenever you flush, the tank empties and the water hits the bowl in less than 3 seconds. This is similar to the procedure undertaken above, of pouring water into the bowl with a bucket. Your gravity flush toilet usually comes with a chain connected to the handle. Once you push the handle, the chain is pulled; it lifts the flush valve and reveals a 3-inch hole. This hole is the siphon jet.

The Refill Mechanism

Once you dump water into the bowl fast enough, it activates siphon. The purpose of the flush valve and the tank is to hold water and dump around 2 gallons very fast into the bowl. After the tank has emptied, the flush positions itself at the bottom of the tank, thus covering the drain hole. The work of the refill mechanism is to fill the tank fast enough in anticipation of another flush process. The refill mechanism usually comes with a valve, for controlling the level of water in the tank.

Bottom Line

Gravity flush toilets are proven to work. They have been used for many years. Additionally, they are simple to use, maintain, and fix. Their parts are easy to obtain and cheap. Therefore, gravity flush toilets provide an affordable option for a toilet at home.

US House Passes Major Mental Health Care Bill

US House Passes Major Mental Health Care Bill

On November 30th 2016, the US House of Representatives passed a $6.5 billion health bill. The bill is expected to benefit the families who have a member or members with mental disorders. It is one of the most significant bill that targets people with the mental problems.

Since the year 1963, the House has never passed a bill favoring people with mental problems; this bill is considered as a great move for them. According to Maria A. Oquendo, the President of the American Psychiatrist Association, the bill also aimed at benefiting patients with mental diseases that result from substance use e.g. drug addicts with mental health problems.

Mental Health Problems in the US

US House Passes Major Mental Health Care BillIt is estimated that out of every five Americans, one is suffering from a mental health problem. The problem can either be natural or as a result of drug and substance abuse. If the people suffering from these mental diseases got access to a healthcare, they would get the right help and the number would decrease.
The patients would also have a chance to live a better life than they do. Over 75% of the people with the mental health problems are 24 years and above. If the problems are taken care of at an early age, the fewer the mental health patients would be in the country.

The Bill’s Benefits to the Citizens

The main aim of the bill is to improve the effectiveness and the oversight of the federal mental health programs. The bill also aims at providing more funds for mental health programs. These funds are to enhance the efficiency in response to crisis and implement tracking systems for the inpatients and residential beds. The bill will also ensure that there are adequate funds to promote early intervention of mental health problems. The cases of suicide are also expected to reduce after the implementation of the bill.


After the bill had been passed, some civil rights groups opposed the move claiming that the bill would violate patient’s privacy protection. According to these groups, the bill would also estrange some mental health patients by forcing them to seek the involuntary outpatient treatment.

People in the mental health field agrees that the bill will be beneficial, but they don’t believe that it would be of significant help. The mental health bill won’t have an effect on the medicine prices. Insurance policies are also likely to be affected by the passing of the bill.

Is the Mental Health Final?

US House Passes Major Mental Health Care BillSome say that the bill is just a tip of an iceberg, that the mental health bill is just a beginning of the reformation of the mental health programs. According to the players behind it, the bill is just laying a foundation for improvements in the mental health programs. It aims to reduce the numbers of the people suffering from the mental health problems in the country.


For more than 50 years, there have not been any changes in the mental health programs in the US. More and more health bills have been passed and implemented, but none has involved the mental health. The number of the mental health patients in the country has continued to rise and today, it estimated that there are over 60 million mental health patients. Out of the people suffering from mental health disorders, about 80% percent are adults over 24 years. If the bill is implemented, the number is expected to reduce as more and more people will have access to health care and get treated.

Best Brands of Gun Safe That People Prefer

5 Best Brands of Gun Safe That People Prefer

Possessing a gun requires you to install a gun safe which will ensure its safety. Guns can be improperly handled by children, visitors, and unintended users. At the same time, they are always top targets among burglars. While you try to ensure the safety of your gun from unintended access, it is also important to emphasize on its usage. Thus, while considering buying a gun safe, be sure to buy one that can be installed in a place which will ensure quick access and one that is easy to operate. This will increase your chances of security at home and outside home in the public places.

What are the Best Brands of Gun Safe the People Prefer?

There are several brands of gun safe in the market. These gun safes have different installation methods as well as usage. Therefore, individuals have significantly preferred buying some gun safes to others. Some of the highly preferred guns include:

1) American Security (AMSEC)

Best Brands of Gun Safe That People PreferAMSEC is one of the most popular gun safe manufacturing companies which are largely known in US. The gun safes from AMSEC range from gun boxes and cabinets to in-walls and vault doors. The gun safes from this manufacturer are made from different locking mechanisms such as biometric, manual, and keypad locking mechanisms. At the same time, AMSEC makes gun safe for the storage of different guns with different sizes.

2) Browning Gun Safes

Best Brands of Gun Safe That People PreferBrowning has been in the sale of gun safes for more than 10 years today. Also, Browning is geared to integrate the latest locking mechanism technologies to ensure maximum safety of the guns. Mostly, Browning considers different factors such as susceptibility of the gun to damage by water and fire during the manufacture of a gun safe. At the same time, it considers using materials such as 18-gauge steel in order to prevent any possible burglary action or unintended handling of your gun.

3) Heritage Safe Company

Best Brands of Gun Safe That People PreferThis company conducts its gun safe sales across America. Heritage gun safes are enhanced with effective locking mechanisms using lock bolts, 18-gauge steel, and reinforced doors. Heritage gun safes are also manufactured with a high regard to fire protection using thick metal which cannot easily pass the heat or moisture in case of fire or water outbreaks.

4) Liberty Safes

Best Brands of Gun Safe That People PreferLiberty gun safes are known for their maximum security. Severally, the company has tested the effectiveness of its gun safes through dropping them to a 200ft and riding cars over them. This has instilled trust among the customers and the users.
Liberty gun safes are manufactured using metals such as aluminum and 18-gauge steel. Therefore, they are extremely hard to break unless opened or operated through their locking mechanisms.

5) Truck Vault

Truck Vault is located in Washington. The company is associated with car as well as home gun safes. Mostly, the company makes gun safes for vehicles such as pick-ups, SUVs,and trucks. Thus, it focuses on slim designs, portability, and effective locking mechanisms while making its gun safes.


It is very risky to have a gun and not own a gun safe. This makes your gun susceptible of being robbed or being handled by unintended users. This can be dangerous it is your children or any other family member or visitor who does not know how to use a gun. Thus, it is important to ensure that you buy a proper gun safe among the best brands in the market in order to protect your gun.

Does Using Ceiling Fans Save Energy

Does Using Ceiling Fans Save Energy?

Ceiling fans are necessary for the summer due to its high temperatures. They are also used in winter so as to help raise the temperature of the room. However, according to the United States Department of Energy the Energy information, administration, and the air conditioning bills account for a quarter all the energy bills. Therefore, it is necessary to understand whether ceiling fans save on energy and if not, how can they save on energy?

Ceiling Fans Energy Consumption

The fans have the capacity to save the energy bills. However, it depends on how they are used. Most people do not understand how the ceiling fans work. Therefore, they just switch them on and off for them to keep the temperatures, high or low depending on the weather. They do this without understanding how they actually work and how they can be more efficient in saving on the energy consumption.

How Does Ceiling Fan Work?

Does Using Ceiling Fans Save EnergyCeiling fans do not literally cool down the temperature of the room. They work by increasing the air circulation over the skin of the person in the room. This helps the body to be more efficient in releasing more heat through the skin resulting to one feeling cooler.

In winter, one is supposed to change the direction of the rotation of the fan. This ensures that the fan pushes the warm air downwards. This warm air comes into contact with the skin of the person in the room helping the body to conserve more heat within the body. To get more insight into what the best ceiling fans are and how to choose the correct one for your home it is important to read ceiling fan reviews and this ceilin fan comparison guide has us covered with some in depth comparison and reviews of the top rated ceiling fans available today.

This means that the ceiling fans are not useful if there is no person in the room. Therefore, to help the fans save on energy consumption, turn off the fans running in empty rooms. Only turn on the fans when you are home and using particular rooms

During summer, having the thermostat set at the normal temperature when the ceiling fans are running adds to the already high energy consumption. Therefore, during summer, set the thermostat a few degrees Celsius higher than normal. During the winter, set it a few degrees Celsius lower. This will aid to save on the energy bills by ensuring that there is no wastage of energy.

Other Facts Determining the Energy Consumption by the Ceiling Fans

Does Using Ceiling Fans Save EnergyIdeally, Ceiling fans are more effective when put at around eight feet above the floor. Also, the blades should run at around a foot from the ceiling. At this height, the fan is more effective at ensuring good air circulation at optimal energy. Therefore, if the height of the ceiling is above this, one is required to increase the speed of the fans which in turn increases the energy consumption.

It is important to note that the length of the ceiling blades also affects their energy consumption. Fans with short blades require to be run at a higher speed for effective air circulation. This results in higher energy consumption. On the other hand, fans with large blades are capable of effective air circulation at a lower speed. This results in lower energy bills.


The ceiling fans use minimal amount of energy per hour. However, if left to run all day and even in empty rooms, the cumulative energy consumed results to high bills. Therefore, take all the necessary steps to make sure that the ceiling fans serves you with minimal energy consumption.